Word of the Day - GURU advisor


LLDP is the acronym for Link Layer Discovery Protocol, an open and vendor-neutral protocol that is part of the Internet Protocol Suite used in IEEE 802 (specifically, it's defined by standard IEEE 802.1AB). This protocol allows devices on a local network, mainly wired Ethernet, to communicate their identities and characteristics.

LLDP has the same features of othery proprietary protocols like CDP by Cisco or LLTD by Microsoft.

Cold Storage

Cold Storage is about storing inactive data that a company, or society, barely consults or doesn't even consult in years. This kind of storage has low cost coupled with an high capacity and duration in time as fundamental requirements: Amazon Glacier and Google Cloud Storage Nearline are two examples of cloud services for Cold Storage.


IEEE stands for Institute of Electrical and Elecronics Engineers (often called I triple E). IEEE is an international association of professional scientists that have the promotion of IT sciences as objective.

The main goal of IEE is to search for new applications and theories in sciences related to IT and electronics, but it's recognized -in particular- for its role in the definition and publication of the standards that regulate such technology fields. These standards are worldwide accepted and recognized.


The term Open Source designates a software category whose source code is freely distribuited by authors. 

The main goal is to favour usage and allows other developers to bring their contributes by means of integrations and changes. Changes are usually controlled by specific use licences.

Bare-metal Hypervisor

In the virtualization sphere, a Bare-Metal Hypervisor, also called Type 1 Hypervisor, is a virtualization software that gets installed on the host's bare hardware, hence the name. 

Bare-metal Hypervisors guarantee a greater efficiency and stability than Client Hypervisors (which are installed on top of operating systems), also called Type 2 Hypervisors, as they can directly manage computing resources withouth passing thru other softwares or operating systems.


Apache is the worldwide most used Web server. The Apache project is managed by the Apache Software Foundation and it was originally based on NCSA HTTPd server; the development of Apache began in 1994 and the first release was in April 1995.

This Web server is available for several Operating Systems like Microsoft Windows, NetWare and OpenVMS, but the main use is on Unix-based systems, in particular on Linux distros. Actually it's estimated that Apache runs 50% of the active Internet Web sites.


NFV stands for Network Functions Virtualization: the goal of this model is to realize whole network architectures for services prodiving by means of a completely virtualized hardware. The main idea that lies within this approach is that entire "blocks" of the infrastructure are implemented with virtual machines managed by hypervisors, thus reducing costs and bourden of traditional hardware installations that are used for the same roles like firewalls, load balancers, routers, etc..


ATX is a specific standard format, used on an industrial level, that defines dimensions and characteristics of PC motherboards. The existence of a shared and recognized standard allows users and PC vendors to buy motherboards coming from different manufacturers without incurring in hardware or dimension incompatibilities.

The ATX format was born as an evolution of the previous original AT format by rotating by 90° the processor and expansion slots layout to leave more freedom while installing additional peripheral.

The other main formats are Micro-ATX and Mini-ATX.


AMD-V (AMD Virtualization) is an hardware extension set of processors on the x86 architecture. AMD introduces these extensions in order to implement on hardware features that were originally realized via software and improve resource usage and performances of virtual machines.

The AMD-V virtualization technology was introduced in 2004 with 64-bit Pacifica x86 processors, followed with the families Athlon 64, Turion, Opteron and Phenom I and II, up to the more recent models of the FX line.

Blade server

Blade Server is a type of chassis used in servers to host so-called "blade" servers in a compact and modular manner. Each blade represents a complete server unit, this kind of computer is usually organized in racks.

Blade servers were born with the aim of optimizing and simplifying the cabling and powering processes of IT infrastructures.


Burn-in test is a test where a system (an IT system or not), or a particular component, is kept powered on for a long time while performing intensive tasks in order to identify potential problems due to use.

With respects to the video world, a Burn-In or "Ghostsing" phenomen happens when an image, statically shown on the display for a long time, is then permanently visible as a "ghost" superimposed to the following images.



MWC stands for Mobile World Congress. This event is held in Barcelona and is one of the biggest and most important worldwide events in the telecommunication field, mobile telephony in particular. The original name was GMS World Congress indeed.

The fair has an annual frequency and is usually held in the mid of February: the opening date has been posticipated by a few weeks only in the last years (since 2012). This event is attended by visitors and expositors from all over the world, with an average of 50-60 thousands partecipants during the 5 days of the fair.

GURU advisor is present to the 2016 edition of the WMC: follow us on the Website and on our Twitter account (@guruadvisor) to discover all the news and previews directly from Barcelona!

Self-service Business Intelligence (SSBI)

The term Self-service Business Intelligence defines an approach to data analysis that allow users dealing with business to access and process collected data with a proper organization, even though they don't have a deep knowledge in statistics, business intelligence and data mining.

Data Mining

Data Mining ia an automatized data analysis technique based on mathematical algorithms that has the goal of identifying specific "patterns" and relations between data itself. Data Mining is frequently used in Big Data analysis.


A failback is a procedure to bring back the production state on a primary machine or infrastructure after being moved on a secondary system (machine or infrastructure) following a failover.


Failover is a mode or situation in which the operation on a certain infrastructure (or machine) are temporary migrated on a secondary backing system. Such migration can be due to a failure, maintenance operation or. in general, a lack of availability by the primary system.


Failover is a mode or situation in which the operation on a certain infrastructure (or machine) are temporary migrated on a secondary backing system. Such migration can be due to a failure, maintenance operation or. in general, a lack of availability by the primary system.

Wi-Fi backscattering

Wi-Fi backscattering is a a low power communication technology that uses RF signals as source of energy. For instance existing Wireless infrastructures can be used to supply RF-powered devices and connected on the Internet.

The key point of this solutions is the limited use of energy, which finds its way in fields like self-sufficient WiFi sensors and several applications in the Internet of Things world.


The term Solid State Disk defines a memorization support that, as the 'solid state' part suggests, is free of moving parts. The technology at the basis of SSD supports is Flash NAND memories.
With respect to traditional spinning mechanical disks, SSD supports offer better performances in writing/reading operations, and can reach a data transfer speed of more than 500MByte/s, according to the type of support and the connector used.

NAND flash memory

The term NAND Flash memory defines a type of non-volatile memorization support that doesn't require to be powered on to conserve data. Flash NAND memories have a finite number of writing cycles as main limit, a phenomenon called write-out which brings to a gradual decrease of the performances. These memories are used, for instance, in supports like memory cards, USB sticks and SSD disk.

Google Analytics

Google Analytics is the free tool by Google for statistical analysis of Web traffic and SEO (Search Engine Optimization) optimization. Available for everybody who has a Google account, Analytics provides several services, like graphical visualization of collected data, custom reports and integration with optimization tools (AdWords, Website Optimizer, etc). In order to start using the service, go to http://analytics.google.com and login with your credentials.


Search Engine Optimization (SEO) is an area of Web development which aims to optimize and maximize the way that content is identified and ranked by web search engines. This result can be achieved in several ways, for instance by choosing properly structured titles for content, by providing responsiveness or by improving the loading speed of the Web site.


Amazon Web Services (AWS) is the Cloud Computing platform by Amazon born in 2006. It's an uberly complex infrastructure with geographically distributed nodes all over the world in order to guarantee the best reliability.
AWS offers a plenty of paid Cloud services, for instance S3 for storage, EC2 for computing and RDS for databases. You can access to the platform by registering at https://aws.amazon.com/ and take advantage of the free (and limited) plan and use Amazon's Cloud resources.


CSV is the acronym for Cluster Shared Volumes and indicates a feature of the Windows Server Operating System that allows shared disks to be available to all the nodes the failover cluster is made up of. This feature has been introduced for the first time with Windows Server 2008 R2 with the aim of simplifying the use of storage with Hyper-V virtual machines.

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